Formation of the apple cultivar Skifske Zoloto fruits quality and storage depending on a rootstock in a common cooled fruit store
UDC 634.11/12: 796:631.541
L.M.SHEVCHUK, Doc Agr Sci
S.M. BABENKO, Junior Research Worker
V.M. ZHUK, PhD
Institute of Horticulture, NAAS of Ukraine, 03027, Kyiv-27, 23 Sadova str., e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The main task that the gardeners of both our country and throughout the world solve today is to increase productivity, yield and quality of the apple (Malus Domestica Borkh.) orchards products. At the present time the traditional fruit production system, based on the short-holed trees use takes the leading place. On such rootstocks, apples are larger, brighter in colour, and therefore have higher marketable qualities.
The authors have investigated the rootstocks influence on the storage duration and the apple cultivar Skifs’ke Zoloto products quality in a common cooled fruit store. The first mentioned index on the rootstocks 62-396, 54-118 and 57-490 has appeared to average during the study years 93 days, the marketable products yield beign 97.8-99.5 %, while on M.26, D-10-71 and M.9 90 days and 98.1-98.6 % respectively.
The decrease of the fruits merchantability on all the rootstocks was caused by microbiological disorders, which during the years of research varied from 1.5 to 3.2 %. Their main pathogens were Monilia fructigena Pers, Penicilium exspansumi Botrytiscinerea Pers. The greatest damage was observed in the years with high GTC (2018), when this index for the period of growth and development (April-September) was higher than 1.4 % and the apples were more susceptible to all the pathogens. It was noted that the fruits on M.26, D-10-71 and M.9 were affected by microbiological disorders (3.2 %) to the greater degree.
The loss of the apple mass during the storage is a part of two physiological processes-transpiration and respiration rate. The first one depends on the relative humidity level in the fruit store, which must be supported within the recommended limits (90-95 %), as well as on the fruit skin structure. The significant rootstocks effect on the total fruits mass loss has not been detected. The main criteriuma that is the indicator of the both external and internal fruits quality is their pulp density. It varied by the cultivation years and was 9.3-8.8 kg/cm2 depending on a rootstock during the picking maturity. By the end of the storage, this index reduced to 4.5-4.2 kg/cm2. The essential difference between the rootstocks was not detected.
Key words: apple fruits, their storage, and keeping quality, common cooled atmosphere, rootstock.
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