Improvement of the methods of the fruit crops mineral nutrition diagnostics

DOI: 10.35205/0558-1125-2019-74-91-100
UDC 631.4:581.133.8.001.76

IMPROVEMENT OF THE METHODS OF THE FRUIT CROPS MINERAL NUTRITION DIAGNOSTICS

T.V. MALYUK, L.V. KOZLOVA, PhDs
N.G. PCHOLKINA, Junior Research Worker
M.F. Sydorenko Melitopol Research Station of Horticulture of IH NAAS of Ukraine, 72311, Melitopol, 99, Vakulenchuk St., e-mail: agrochim.ios@ukr.net

The paper is devoted to the development of the theoretical basis for increasing the of fertilizers application efficiency in the orchards. It is based on the creation of fertilizer systems, which are determined by a set of criteria for changing the soils agrochemical properties under the influence of fertilizers and the plants reaction to these changes in certain soil-climatic conditions.
The purpose of our work was to assess the needs of fruit crops grown according to the intensive technologies in the southern part of the steppe zone of Ukraine on the basis of the detailed estimation of the trees reaction to the changes in the mineral rate of the soil due to the use of fertilizers. The research was aimed at providing the maximum manifestation of the productive apple and pear trees potential, obtaining high qualitaty fruits under the material resources saving and reducing the chemical load on the environment.
As a result of the research the authors determined the factors that determine the nutrients absorption pome fruit trees intensity (according to the of the main macroelements content in the leaves as indicated organs). The maximum nutrient inflow into the fruit trees was noted under a soil moisture content of 70-80 % as the lowest, the temperature is 22-26 癈, the N-NO3 content in the soil  14.5-21.7 mg/kg, 󕫟 3,9÷5,0 mg/100 g, 2 29-37 mg/100 g.
In addition, the authors specified the optimum ranges of the nitrogen and potassium content in the leaves of the pome trees in the conditions of the Southern Steppe. Under the intensive technologies of growing apple and pear trees, the optimum range of the nitrogen and potassium content in leaves, which provides the optimum of plant nutrition quality and achieving higher yields, was 1.8-2.2 and 0.35-0.60 % respectively.
We also proved the expediency of assessing the plant nutrition quality by the correlation of nutrients in the leaves. The analysis of the pome fruits nutrition quality concerning the three elements showed that the correlation of  N:P:K 4-6:1:1-2 corresponds to the best total trees state, higher chlorophyll content, and increased plant uptake degree.
In the course of the research, the existence of the significant dependence between the apple plantations yield, some indicators of the soil mineral rate was revealed as well as with fertilizer doses. On the basis of these data the mathematical models of the yield prediction were calculated in accordance with the nutrients content in the soil.
The research also showsed the possibility of using a set of indicators characterizing the physiological and biochemical processes of plants, in particular, functional diagnostics, for improving fertilizer application effectiveness, determining optimal fertilizer systems of orchards, productivity increasing their and resistance to stress factors.
Key words: apple and pear orchards, diagnostics of nutrition, plant diagnostics, plant nutrition quality, yield, optimal fertilization system.

扬桉铌 忤觐痂耱囗羁 氤蝈疣蝮痂
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