Substrates influence on the hazelnut layers quality in the mother plantation for the vegetative reproduction

DOI: 10.35205/0558-1125-2018-73-89-97
UDC 006.015.5:634.55:631. 532/535

SUBSTRATES INFLUENCE ON THE HAZELNUT (CORYLUS MAXIMA) LAYERS QUALITY IN THE MOTHER PLANTATION FOR THE VEGETATIVE REPRODUCTION

A.Y. KARAS, V.A. SOBOL, N.O. YAREMKO, PhDs
Institute of Horticulture, NAAS of Ukraine, 03027, Kyiv - 27, 23, Sadova st.

The authors have carried out a brief analysis of the hazelnuts cultivation and fruit crops vegetative propagation. In the recent years, there has been an increase of the demand for the hazelnuts in the market, that makes their production increasingly profitable. So, this is a potential for a Ukrainian farmer, an entrepreneur. The main problem is the lack of the appropriate varietal planting stock of the inland breeding for different soil and climatic zones, and therefore the development of the modern elements of the technology for its cultivation is a problem of today.
The authors present the results of the researches in the first four years (2013-2016) of the  hazelnut vegetative propagation exploitation mother garden in the vertical way with the planting plan 1.50.3 m with the different substrates application and their influence on the reproductive capacity and quality of the obtained seedlings of the cultivars Sviatkovy, Dolynsky, Koronchaty and a Darunok Yunnatam.
The experimental plot soil is dark gray, podzolic, medium loamy on the loess-like carbonate loam. The humus content in the 0-60 centimeter layer was 1.50-2.53 % (according to the method of Turin), alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen 78.9, mobile phosphorus 114.3 and exchangeable potassium 102.9 mg/kg of soil, and the water extract reaction is 7.4 pH. As substrates peat, sawdust and their mixture in the ratio of 1:1, were used for the layers ridging as well as sawdust with the application of the multifunctional biological preparation Extrakon (the rate of the working solution was 22.2 m3/ha, 1.2 g/l), the control was soil ridging.
On the average, in 2013-2016, there was an increase of the number of seedlings from the mother plant, (especially Sviatkovy underridging with sawdust and using the Extrakon (from 2.2 to 13.0 pcs/bush) and the application of peat (from 2.1 to 11.3 pieces/bush) Koronchaty in the same variants had, this indicator from 2.0 to 7.1 and from 1.4 to 6.5 pcs/bush respectively. The cvs Polynsky and Darunok Yunnatam had the highest yield when using also sawdust as well combined with the preparation Extracon as a substrate (from 1.9 to 10.6 and from 3.3 to 12.3 pcs/bush, and only sawdust was used (from 1.8 to 9.5 and from 2.0 to 11.6 pcs/bush).
ANOVA revealed that it was a cultiva (factor A) that had the greatest influence on the yield of seedling (43.1 %) its interaction with the substrate (AB) (38.7 %), and the substrate effect increased in the course of years and achieved 39.2 % on the average.
The most effective used substrates were determined. The ability of the studied varieties seedlings of rooting was detected.
Concerning to the ability of the seedlings to root the researched cultivars can be divided into 3 groups, namely: easily rooted Sviatkovy, medium-rooted Dolynsky and Darunok Yunnatam and hard-rooted Koronchaty.

Key words:
hazelnut, mother plantation, substrate, peat, sawdust, preparation Extrakon, standard layers.

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