Irrigation regime regulation in the apple intense orchards in the South of Ukraine

DOI: 10.35205/0558-1125-2018-73-116-122
UDC 634.1:631.675+681.5(477.7)

IRRIGATION REGIME REGULATION IN THE APPLE (MALUS DOMESTICA BORKH.) INTENSE ORCHARDS IN THE SOUTH OF UKRAINE

L.V. KOZLOVA, PhD, Research Worker
T.V. MALYUK, PhD, Senior Research Worker
M. F. Sydorenko Melitopol Research Station of Horticulture of IH NAAS of Ukraine, 72311, Melitopol, 99, Vakulenchuk St., e-mail:iossuaan@zp.ukrtel.net

The purpose of our researches was to determine the optimum terms and irrigation standards for intense apple orchards, in particular, using the calculation method of increasing yield, saving irrigation water and increasing the level of the drip irrigation process automation.
The researches were carried out during 2006-2013 in the apple intense orchards of the M.F. Sydorenko Melitopol Research Station (IH NAAS), the cultivarsvarieties Aidared, Golden Delicious and Florina, planted in 2003, the planting plan was - 4x1 m. The soil of the experimental plot was southern chornozem, heavy loamy. The drip irrigation system was used with water discharges in each 0.6 m water and 1.5 l/h cost. The average index of the lowest moisture capacity (MC) in the soil layer 1 m is 25.3%. Ground water is at a depth of less than 3 m.
The results of the explorations testify the high efficiency of using the micro-irrigation system for increasing the apple trees productivity, and ensuring the optimum soil water regime in its intense orchards is possible when applying the operational method of determining the watering terms and norms.
The expediency of applying the calculation method of the watering setting of intense apple orchards was determined with using of meteorological indicators concerning the difference between evaporation and precipitations amount. This method provides the operative control of the irrigation regime, as compared to the classic thermostat-weight method,  in particular, due to reducing the term of setting the irrigation terms and norms by 2-3 and increasing the inter-irrigation period up to 7 days while maintaining the planned level of the pre-irrigation moisture content in the soil, reducing the costs of labour and material resources, first of all, rejection from determining the amount of moisture by means of the gravimetric method, increasing the orchard yield up to 60 %.
The use of the indicators "calculated evaporation" (E0) and precipitations amount (O), since the setting of irrigation at to determine the wateringe regime the 90 % balance between them during the vegetation period contributes to maintain the moisture content in the soil at 80 % and provides the optimum correlation between growth processes and yield.

Key words:
apple, water consumption, water regime of soil, irrigation regime, system of microirrigation, automation.

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