Evolution of the apple cultivation technology
EVOLUTION OF THE APPLE (MALUS DOMESTICA BORKH.) CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY
P.V. KONDRATENKO, Doctor, Professor, Academician of NAAS of Ukraine
Institute of Horticulture, NAAS of Ukraine, 03027, Kyiv-27, 23, Sadova St., e-mail: email@example.com
T.Ye. KONDRATENKO, Doctor, Professor, Corresponding Member of NAAS
National University of Life and Natural Resources, 03041, Kyiv-41, 12a, Heroi Oborony St., e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The uathors have presented the regions where wild apple species and its fruits industrial cultivation have been introduced, considered the role of seed and vegetatively propagated rootstocks in this crop growing, the noted advantages and disadvantages of high intensive technologies, which guarantee shortening of the investment return.
The necessity of searching the safe systems of the horticultural products manufacturing emphasized and the expediency of introducting the organic horticulture substantiated. In the future, the priori this sector direction will be the implementation of the principle of its staunch development, which is based on the continuous management of production without significant impact and disturbance of the natural environment on the basis of the creating special agroecosystems.
The essence of the future cultivation technologies is stressed which supersedes consists in conscious cooperation of man with nature.
The paper describes in detail the technology of the permaculture orchard as the system that, despite very high biodiversity, requires almost no care. Its essence lies in the conscious cooperation of man with nature, which is beneficial for all the living beings. The permaculture orchard is based on three principles: the care of the land, people and the distribution of surplus.
The permaculture horticulture technology only begins to be explored and distributed now as one of the most promising in the production of high quality apples. It is the object for great attention of scientists and manufacturers, developing new and improving the known techniques that will provide obtaining the environmentally pure products.
Thus, the evolution of the apple growing technologies shows that from the very beginning of its wild species introduction into the culture they under went cycles of the improvement of both the plants themselves and the fruits production technologies. In all the periods of the apple development breeders and growers solved compcacated tasks, that contributed to increase the trees resistance to natural disasters, diseases and pests, as well as to increase the orchards productivity and fruit quality. As the history and modern production testify that many advanced technologies are now known. It is just they that are most often used in the apple fruits production, depending on their quality, growing region and the specific orchards productivity.
Key words: apple, rootstocks, technologies, intense and palmette orchards, organic manufacturing system, column-formed cultivars.