Blackberry cultivars phenological phases under the conditions of the Ukraines Lisosteppe

DOI: 10.35205/0558-1125-2018-73-33-41
UDC 634.717:581.543

BLACKBERRY (RUBUS L.) CULTIVARS PHENOLOGICAL PHASES UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF THE UKRAINES LISOSTEPPE

Yu. Yu. TELEPENKO, Junior Research Worker
Institute of Horticulture, NAAS of Ukraine, 03027, Kyiv - 27, 23, Sadova st., e-mail: juli23@meta.ua

The author has studied the terms of the passage of the main phenological stages of the growth and development of 25 blackberry cultivars (Adriene, Apache, Asterina, Black Butte, Black Diamond, Black Magic, Black Pearl, Brzezina, Čačanska Vestrna, Chester, Chief Joseph, Heaven San Wait, Jumbo, Karaka Black, Kiowa, Loch Tay, Natches, Navaho, Orkan, Ouachita, Reuben, Tornfree, Triple Crown, Nasoloda (control) and Sadove Chudo) and analysed the weather and climatic effect on these terms. The ecological and climatic index of the blackberry vegetation period beginning is determined by the date of the steady average daily air temperature transition through 5º . The end of the blackberry plants vegetation period is fixed with the cessation of their growth, which mostly lasts until October and is limited by the beginning of the daily average temperature below 10 C. Only the varieties of the straight shoot type end growing 10-15 days earlier. The main criterion for the phenophases beginning  determining is the accumulation of the of active temperatures sum. The plants of most of the studied blackberry varieties begin to bloom in the third decade of May, when the sum of active temperatures (10 C and above) exceeds 600 C, and in the first decade of June under the similar indicator above 750 C. It was cv Reuben (22.06), that started this process when the sum of accumulated active temperatures was above 940 C. It is necessary to note that such terms are a positive crop characteristic, as they reduce the plants damage probability the spring frosts and ensure the crop preservation. It was found that the sum of accumulated active temperatures reached 1000 at the beginning of reaching the Karaka Vlack berries, whereas about 1500 C in the other early ripening varieties. The remontant varieties (Reuben and Black Magic) fruits ripening began in the third decade of August when the sum of active temperatures exceeded 2400 C. The cvs Kiowa and Orkan with the long (over 40 days) maturity period were selected as well as Black Pearl, Adriene, Asterina, Čačanska Bestrna, Heaven San Wait and Nasoloda with the average period (30-40 days). The fruit-bearing period of the rest of the varieties was short (up to 30 days). It is necessary to note Brzezina, which bears fruits for about 16 days, and Reuben and Black Magic that do up to the air temperature fall. The varieties were divided into groups according to the berries ripening terms: early, mid-early, mid- and late-ripening.

Key words: blackberry, cultivar, blossom, phenophases, vegetation period, the effective temperatures sum, growth of the shoots, early ripening, berries ripening duration.

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