Apricot plants agrobiological indices estimation in intense orchards of the Ukraines Southern Steppe

DOI: 10.35205/0558-1125-2018-73-97-106
UDC 634.21:631.524.82[631.527.6.001

APRICOT (ARMENIAA VULGARIS LAM.) PLANTS AGROBIOLOGICAL INDICES ESTIMATION IN INTENSE ORCHARDS OF THE UKRAINES SOUTHERN STEPPE

G.A. KINASH, Research Worker
M.F. Sydorenko Melitopol Research Station of Fruit Growing of the Institute of Horticulture, NAAS of Ukraine, 72311, Melitopol, 99 Vakulenchuk St., e-mail: iosuaan@zp.ukrtel.net

The researches were conducted for 2016-2017 in the orchard planted in the spring of 2013 with using perennial apricot cultivars Kumir (early) and Tashchenaksky (medium maturity) bred at the  M.F. Sydorenko Melitopol Research Station of the Institute of Horticulture (NAAS) on the own-rooted rootstocks Druzhba, Vesniane Polumia and BBA-1. The experiment was established in triplicate using the following planting plans: 5x3 m - 667 trees per 1 ha (control), 5x2.5 m - 800, 5x2 m - 1000, 5x1.5 m - 1333 trees/ha. The variants include 8-10 trees of each cv. The soil was managed under black steam with irrigation.
The influence of different planting plans on the growth vigour, biological productivity, leaf surface, crown parameters were studied as well as development the feeding area by of five-year apricot trees of the above mentioned varieties on the above named clonal rootstocks.
The investigation results show that its rootstocks that are of the decisive importance  when choosing the optimum planting density for apricot trees. Studying the growth processes peculiarities showed that from the first years after planting a tree on the rootstock Druzhba achieved the greatest height and formed thicker trunks.
In the fifth year of the vegetation (during the of growth and fruit-bearing period) the high trees placement density (5x1,5 m) appeared to restrain their growth processes (by 17,7-52,2 %), increase the fruit formations number as compared to the vegetative mass per 1 m3 of the crown by 1.4 and 1.5 times and to rise the coeffucent of the utilization of the tree feeding area from 27.3 (667 trees/ha) to 34.7 % (1333 trees/ha). This indicator decrease from 15 to 7.5 m2 caused the leaf area reduction of one tree, but in the terms of 1 ha it increased. In the variant with the planting plan 5x1,5 m the indexes of the total leaf surface and chlorophyll content were lower than under 5x2 m. That is the consequence of the excessive tree thickening. Among the semi-dwarf rootstocks, the highest agrobiological indicators  of the studied cultivars trees varieties were noted on Druzhba, the lowest on BBA-1.

Key words:  apricot, cultivar, clonal rootstock, feeding area, growing energy, volume, projection area, leaf surface, yield.

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