Application of synthetic supersorbents and soil mulching under resource-saving technologies for the apple cultivation

DOI: 10.35205/0558-1125-2018-73-107-115
UDC 677.021.122.6:631.544.7:631.153.7:634.11

APPLICATION OF SYNTHETIC SUPERSORBENTS AND SOIL MULCHING UNDER RESOURCE-SAVING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE APPLE (MALUS DOMESTICA BORKH.)  CULTIVATION

V.M. ZHUK, V.A. KRYVOSHAPKA,
PhDs
V.M. KOZAK, Junior Research Worker
Institute of Horticulture, NAAS of Ukraine, 03027, Kyiv-27, 23 Sadova st., e-mail: cherry0308@ukr.net, v.kryvoshapka@ukr.net
I.E. YAROSHCHUK, General Director
25014, Kropyvnytsky, 5, Zagorodnya st.

The paper has elucidated the issue of the apple fruits cultivation, associated with the reliable water supply and soil nutrition of this crop intense orchards and the problem of their irrigation in Ukraine and substantiated the expediency of mulching and the synthetic supersorbents application to solve the problem of the water conservation and increase of soil fertility.
The researches aimed at studying the effect of the different forms of the complex supersorbents of the Maximarin trademark and of mulching on the soil fertility, the trees state and the apple cultivars  productivity in orchards different structures on the rootstock M.9 were conducted in the experiment established in the spring of 2008 at the Institute of Horticulture (NAAS of Ukraine).
The planting plan of the experiment includes 8 variants. In the orchard design with fusiform crowns and trees placing 4x1 and 4x0.5 m the rows holding under black steam, mulching with fungous compost are superseeded, as well as under black steam with pre-planting in the planting holes of application of the complex superorbents (tablets) 6 pcr each pit) and granules (20 g per pit). The areas where the trees were placed under planting plan 4x1 m were control as well as the row was held under black steam with the herbicides application.
The analytical work aimed at determining the potential soil fertility, biometric and biochemical parameters of trees and their leaves was conducted under the conventional methods.
The results of the experimental researches of the mulching and supersorbents influence on the field moisture, content of the readily available forms of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in soil, growth vigour and area of leaf surface, physical parameters and chlorophylls concentration in it, on the precocity and yield in different orchard constructions.
The application of the fungous compost and synthetic superorbents in soil as mulch in the apple intense orchard of different constructions proved to provide the field moisture content increase by 25.3-118.7, alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen 18.7-71.1, mobile phosphates 45.9 -389.7 and exchange potassium by 218.6-317.8 % as compared to the control areas where the row was held under black steam.
The positive influence of the studied factors on the soil nutritional regime was observed, under which there emerged the tendency to increase the trunk circumference, trees leaf surface area the leaves physical parameters and the chlorophylls concentration in them. Under the complex of these indicators, those areas were the best ones where the synthetic super-sorbent in the form of granules was used during the planting period preferred.
During planting, areas with the trees placement up to 5000 trees/ha and the use of the super-sorbent in the form of granules provided the highest cultivars yield and the same index in the following period when applying granules for Ligol (47.1 t/ha) and tablets for Skifske Zoloto (61.9 t/ha).

Key words: moisture supply, water preserving, soil fertility, mulching, supersorbents, biometric indices, chlorophylls concentration, yield.

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