Breeding and spread of the apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) new cultivars

DOI: 10.35205/0558-1125-2021-76-20-24

UDC 634.11:631.527



Institute of Horticulture, NAAS of Ukraine, 03027, Kyiv-27, 23, Sadova st.,

The main task of the apple present day breeding is creation of intensive cultivars. In order to accelerate this process at present is the knowledge which has been accumulated in the genetics of the traits of the necessary crop. It is much simpler to carry out breeding on the traits that are controlled by the major genes. If any trait is conditioned by the dominant allele of the major gene it is possible to expect half of seedlings with this trait in the offspring as a result of the crossing. Such approach enables to plan and valuate objectively a great number of seedlings at the primary stages. The principle of a new сv creation is almost similar both in Ukraine and abroad. But in other countries this process is more modern since new laboratories are at the service of a breeder which can accelerate the appearance of a new variety by some years. That′s why this cultivar is more expensive. However that does not guarantee the creation of “ideal” cultivar which would meet all the requirements of a producer and consumer and in most cases such сv becomes known and spreaded not thanks to its certain unrepeatable signs but due to publicity. The breeding on the obtaining of a new apple variety is long-term labour-consuming and complicated work including many stages – from the hybridization to entering into the State Register of the Plant Cultivars Favourable for the Spread in Ukraine. The presence of the registration and licence for the further reproduction as of сv for the wide manufacturing introduction is a very suitable factor but it does not suffice the promotion at the market. Certainly, as in case of everything new many doubts, misgivings and questions appear in this connection and in order that a demand emerge on a new variety and it become known, beside publicity, it is necessary to show all  the advantages and potential as compared to the spreaded cultivars and present complete recommendations concerning the peculiarities of its growing, the substantial robe belonging to a rootstock which influences the tree vigour and fruit early ripening and quality. Therefore the testing оn some most spreaded or new rootstocks should be conducted under different planting plans including the trees pruning, ovary thinning, measuments on the soil management and fertilizing and leaf-feeding dressing into the plants management system in order to ensure the high annual crop.

Key words: apple, cultivar, breeding, rootstock, donors, spread, taste qualities.

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