Sensitivity of the actinidia plants above ground part to the low temperatures effect

DOI: 10.35205/0558-1125-2020-75-197-204

UDC 634.74:631.527 

SENSITIVITY OF THE ACTINIDIA (ACTINIDIA ARGUTA SIEBOLD & ZUCC.) PLANTS ABOVE GROUND PART TO THE LOW TEMPERATURES EFFECT

O.I. RUDNYK-IVASHCHENKO, Doctor

V.A. KRYVOSHAPKA, PhD

M.M. TSANDUR, Роst Graduate Student

V.V. GRUSHA, PhD

Institute of Horticulture, NAAS of Ukraine, 03027, Kyiv-27, 23, Sadova st., e-mail: rudnik2015@ukr.net

The аuthоrs have elucidated relevance of the studies of the actinidia (Actinidia arguta) plants in the conditions of the Black Sea coast Northern Steppe,  and analyzed the influence of the low temperatures on the structural parts of shoots: bark, cambium, wood, core of the two forms of the French breeding – female (two cultivars) and male (one). According to the analyzes results, the aboveground parts of culture of the both forms plant are sensitive to the low temperatures effect, but it was the core tissues of the shoot that were the most vulnerable in the experiment. Thus, in the plants of the female form of variety O aften the I exposure to frost -20 0C, the damage index was at a level of 1.2, while that of the variety in the same variant was by one point higher than of the previous one. Concerning the forms the male plants the most resistant to the low temperatures. The level of those forms was be 2.4 points higher than of the culture of female form. The total indicator of the damage of the shoots which in the variant which the lowest temperature -30 0C the parts of its plants (wood and core of the top, as well as the wood of the middle and through the bud) had the least damaged. Their resistance was by 2.4 points higher as compared to female cvs (total damage to the shoots in variant 4 was 31.4). The varietal actinidia plants characteristics were noted in response to the low temperatures influence in the context of one form. The highest damage level the female form as concerns the variely O in variant 4 (-30 0C) on the sections through the bud, which achieved 3.8 points, while as for cultivar F in same variant 2.9 points. The reaction of the bark tissues in the plants of the female form F under the effect of cold at -20 0C exceeded the level of damage for the plants of same form O more than by twice - 0.7 and 0.3 points respectively. Cooling of the plants aboveground parts to -25 0C revealed close indicators of the damage level to the bark tissues in the same representatives of actinidia O and F: 0.9 and 1.0 points respectively. In the connected which the maximum cooling level (-30 0C), the difference in the cold resistance was much larger. The damage level to the bark tissues in the female forms plants F was 3.5 points, and the level of representatives of O 2.5 points, that is 28.6 % lower. The results of the research proved the positive endurance of the actinidia plants under the conditions of growing in the investigations zone.

Key words:  temperature, spread, frost resistance, laboratory freezing, critical tissue damage.


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