Photosynthesis and crop: problems, achievements, research prospects

DOI: 10.35205/0558-1125-2020-75-251-256

UDC 581.132



Institute of Horticulture, NAAS of Ukraine, 03027, Kyiv-27, Sadova Str., 23

V.V. SCHWARTAU, Doctor, Professor, Corresponding Member of  NAS Ukraine


Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics of NAS of Ukraine, 03022, Kyiv, 31/17, Vasylkivska, e-mail:

The problems of the agricultural the crops productivity increasing have been considered including woody ones, and of improving the photosynthetic apparatus characteristics. On the basis of literature data and results of own experiments regularities of formation of agrocenoses with the increased photosynthetic productivity are analyzed. The key photosynthetic apparatus characteristics are considered that determine the photosynthesis productivity and efficiency. The changes in the intensity of photosynthesis of plants caused by the changes in the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and temperature, are shown as well as the dependence of the photosynthesis intensity on its concentration. The review of the explorations results as regards increasing the agricultural crops photosynthetic apparatus productivity shows that the increase of the carbon dioxide amount in the atmosphere to 1.5 % brings about the directly proportional rise of the photosynthesis intensity. An example is given of growing sugar beets, which form an average yield per hectare of its crops, absorbing about 300-400 kg of carbon dioxide per day. The nature of the daytime photosynthesis in the woody species has common sings, although there is a photosynthesis depression in these plants at noon, due to the increased respiration during this period at elevated temperatures or the maximum radiation, which is stressful for the plant.

The conclusion has been made that one of the ways to increase the photosynthesis productivity is to increase the carbon dioxide concentration in the air. The further efforts of breeders in the creation of new cultivars should be aimed at increasing the plant photosynthetic apparatus activity. These are just new directions in science.

Key words: productivity, photosynthesis, photorespiration, chlorophyll, carbon dioxide, CO2 concentration.

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