Breeding for obtaining apple (Malus domestica Borkh) immune cultivar

DOI: 10.35205/0558-1125-2020-75-31-37

УДК 634.11:631.527:632.4

BREEDING FOR OBTAINING APPLE (MALUS DOMESTICA BORKH) IMMUNE CULTIVARS

L. D. BOLDYZHEVA, PhD

Institute of Horticulture, NAAN of Ukraine, 03027, Kyiv-27, 23, Sadova st., e-mail: FORMYLA60@i.ua

The author presents the main principles of creating apple immune cultivars by means of the directed hybridization with using oligogenic donors, the immunity being conditioned by the parasite usual incapacity of penetrating into a plant and infecting under the most favourable conditions. The immunity is determined by one or several main genes (oligogenes). The scab harmfulness was analysed. That  makes obtaining immune and high resistant apple cvs  the major direction of this crop breeding at the Institute of Horticulture (NAAN of Ukraine). Those varieties would decrease or exclude at all the chemical methods of the scab control. The immune cultivars are presented which were entered into the State Register of Plant Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine in 2006, namely: Edera, Garant, Amulet, Skifske Zoloto, Perlyna Kyieva and the new cvs that were entered into the above mentioned register for the latest five years or are planned to be, including the summer varieties Malusha, Palanka, Nastia, the winter ones Todes, Dmiana, Solomiia, Dozhnytsia. They are all favourable  for the intensive horticulture, nearly all powdery mildew resistant, combine harmonius  taste and aroma, have attractive fruits appearance and the winter cultivars are characterized by the long storage term. It is the winter cv Dmiana that requires especial attention. It differs significantly from existing varieties owing to unique taste qualities which may be compared with the best grape vine dessert cultivars. Besides ‘Dmiana’ is scab immune and not affectioned by powder mildew.

The trees have not a large compact crown, are winter-hardy, early ripening. They begin fruit-bearing in the 2nd year after planting with annual planting trees almost on all the vegetative rootstocks even without a crown. They increase rapidly marketable yield but are susceptible to the fruits overloading and their diminishing in size.

The fruits are middle (130-185 g), orbicular – conic, green – yellow with crimson – red erubesccence nearly on the whole surface. The pulp has aroma, very dense and juicy up to the storage end.

The creation of new fruit crops cvs is complicated multi-year labour which must not be the acquisition of only breeders. To this labour other scientists must be drawn at different stages because the final task of the breeding work is a versatile study of a new variety and offering recommendations to future producers concerning the peculiarities and application.

Key words: apple, cultivar, immune, resistant, scab, donors, taste qualities.

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