NUTRIENTS BOOM AS AN INDICATOR OF THE FRUIT CROPS REQUREMENTS IN MINERAL NUTRITIONНазвание страницы

DOI: 10.35205/0558-1125-2020-75-110-120

УДК 631.4:581.133.8.001.76

NUTRIENTS BOOM AS AN INDICATOR OF THE FRUIT CROPS REQUREMENTS IN MINERAL NUTRITION

T.V. MALIUK, PhD, Senior Research Worker

N.G. PCHOLKINA, Junior Research Worker

L.V. KOZLOVA, PhD, Research Worker

M.F. Sydorenko Melitopol Research Fruit Growing Station of IH of NAAS of Ukraine, 72311, Melitopol, 99, Vakulenchuk St., e-mail: iosuaan@zp.ukrtel.net

The studies were devoted to determining the parameters of the nitrogen absorption and boom by of pome fruit crops intense in the conditions of Southern Ukraine and to assessing the expediency of these indices using to establish the plants requirements in mineral nutrition and rational fertilizers doses. 

The size and structure of the nitrogen boom by apple and pear trees, that is, the ratio between the nitrogen boom from pruned trees and fruits proved to depend on the varietal signs level of the crop yield, as well as  on the doses, terms and methods of the mineral fertilizers application. However, the average nitrogen boom rates by these crops on the irrigated southern black soil did not exceed 25-52 kg N/ha, and this element absorption rate from mineral fertilizers was no more than 14-22 %. The investigations also showned that, with the maximum doses of the N90-120 fertilizer, the nitrogen boom with pruned trees increased by 11-31 % depending on the crop without significant increase of the orchard yield. In addition, when using nitrogen at doses significantly exceeding its boom, the soil accumulated an excess of nitrate compounds beyond the location of the bulk of the trees root system on vegetative rootstocks. Their amount achieved 17-35 % of the total nitrogen supplied to the soil during the entire fertilizer application period. This can cause both the increase of unproductive nitrogen loss, of environmental stress and the reduction of fertilizer payback, in agrocenoses due to the soil water contamination by nitrates.

Considering the above mentioned facts as well as taking into account the ability of fruit crops to re-utilize the nutrients from the vegetative organs, the complex processes of the nitrogenous fund transformation of irrigated southern black soil, in particular, its ability to nitrogen mineralization, and the risk of the environmental contamination with nitrate compounds, the application of nitrogenous fertilizers doses higher than N60 in intense pome orchards in the south of Ukraine are not advisable in agronomic or environmental terms. 

Key words: apple and pear, intense orchards, southern black soil, nitrogen boom, yield, optimum fertilizer system.

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